The Pancreatic Beta Cell

The Pancreatic Beta Cell PDF
Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128004401
Size: 19.80 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 520
View: 7474

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Book Description: First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press. The Series provides up-to-date information on vitamin and hormone research spanning data from molecular biology to the clinic. A volume can focus on a single molecule or on a disease that is related to vitamins or hormones. A hormone is interpreted broadly so that related substances, such as transmitters, cytokines, growth factors and others can be reviewed. This volume focuses on the pancreatic beta cell. Expertise of the contributors Coverage of a vast array of subjects In depth current information at the molecular to the clinical levels Three-dimensional structures in color Elaborate signaling pathways

Exam Prep For The Pancreatic Beta Cell

Exam Prep for  The Pancreatic Beta Cell PDF
Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 75.68 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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Book Description:

Pancreatic Beta Cell In Health And Disease

Pancreatic Beta Cell in Health and Disease PDF
Author: Susumu Seino
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9784431754527
Size: 80.62 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 476
View: 3924

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Book Description: The beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are the only cells in the body that produce and secrete insulin. This metabolic hormone plays a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. This book provides a comprehensive review of the beta cell in health and disease. The book’s primary aim is to encourage investigators to become actively involved in diabetes research and the search for new approaches to prevent and treat diabetes.

Mitochondrial Fission In Pancreatic Beta Cell Insulin Secretion

Mitochondrial Fission in Pancreatic Beta Cell Insulin Secretion PDF
Author: Thomas George Hennings
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780438778276
Size: 34.72 MB
Format: PDF
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 63
View: 2931

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Book Description: Insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells are central regulators of blood glucose homeostasis. In a process termed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) beta cells utilize mitochondrial glucose metabolism to precisely up- or down-regulate insulin vesicle exocytosis in response to changes in plasma glucose concentrations. As beta cells either die or become dysfunctional in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, they are an attractive target for the generation of novel therapeutics. To discover new genetic regulators of beta cell biology, we conducted a genome- wide screen of beta cell insulin production and identified an important role for mitochondrial fission genes. Mitochondrial fission, the process by which one parental mitochondrion gives rise to multiple daughter mitochondria, regulates ATP production, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and processes beyond metabolism in a cell-type specific manner. Given the central role of mitochondrial metabolism in GSIS, we hypothesized that mitochondrial fission may play an important role in regulating beta cell insulin secretion. We thus generated mice lacking beta cell Drp1 (Drp1beta-KO mice), a central regulator of mitochondrial fission. We found that Drp1beta-KO mice were glucose intolerant due to impaired GSIS, but did not progress to fasting hyperglycemia as adults. Despite markedly abnormal mitochondrial morphology, Drp1beta-KO islets exhibited normal oxygen consumption rates and an unchanged glucose threshold for intracellular calcium mobilization. Instead, the most profound consequences of beta cell Drp1 deletion were impaired second-phase insulin secretion and impaired glucose-stimulated amplification of insulin secretion. Our data establish Drp1 as an important regulator of insulin secretion in vivo, and demonstrate a novel role for Drp1 in metabolic amplification and calcium handling without affecting oxygen consumption. Future studies will investigate the contribution of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics to the development of diabetes.

The Role Of Pam In Pancreatic Beta Cell Dysfunction And Diabetes

The Role of PAM in Pancreatic Beta Cell Dysfunction and Diabetes PDF
Author: Shahana Sengupta
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 50.61 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 514
View: 2237

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Book Description:

Nuclear Import Of Glucokinase In Pancreatic Beta Cells Is Mediated By A Nuclear Localization Signal And Modulated By Sumoylation

Nuclear Import of Glucokinase in Pancreatic Beta cells is Mediated by a Nuclear Localization Signal and Modulated by SUMOylation PDF
Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 47.92 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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Book Description: Abstract: The localization of glucokinase in pancreatic beta-cell nuclei is a controversial issue. Although previous reports suggest such a localization, the mechanism for its import has so far not been identified. Using immunofluorescence, subcellular fractionation and mass spectrometry, we present evidence in support of glucokinase localization in beta-cell nuclei of human and mouse pancreatic sections, as well as in human and mouse isolated islets, and murine MIN6 cells. We have identified a conserved, seven-residue nuclear localization signal ( 30 LKKVMRR 36 ) in the human enzyme. Substituting the residues KK 31, 32 and RR 35, 36 with AA led to a loss of its nuclear localization in transfected cells. Furthermore, our data indicates that SUMOylation of glucokinase modulates its nuclear import, while high glucose concentrations do not significantly alter the enzyme nuclear/cytosolic ratio. Thus, for the first time, we provide data in support of a nuclear import of glucokinase mediated by a redundant mechanism, involving a nuclear localization signal, and which is modulated by its SUMOylation. These findings add new knowledge to the functional role of glucokinase in the pancreatic beta-cell. Highlights: Glucokinase is present in the nucleus of human beta-cell islets. Glucokinase contains a functional nuclear localization signal. SUMOylation of glucokinase modulates its nuclear import. High glucose does not affect the nuclear/cytosolic glucokinase ratio.

Physiological Role Of Ccn5 In Pancreatic Beta Cells

Physiological Role of CCN5 in Pancreatic  beta  cells PDF
Author: Nancy Kaddour
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 11.40 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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Book Description: "Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex, progressive disease that results from an interplaybetween genetic and environmental factors that unfavorably affect [beta]-cell function and tissueinsulin sensitivity. The rate of progression of the disease is mainly associated with [beta]-cellabnormalities. A failure in [beta]-cell compensation for prevailing tissue insulin resistance is the maintrigger for T2D. Multiple factors lead to [beta]-cell failure and eventual decompensation; those includehyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, chronic [beta]-cell stimulation and impaired incretin effect. Thesestressors combined with [beta]-cell limited regenerative capacity will result in [beta]-cell apoptosis,autophagy and dedifferentiation. Novel therapeutic avenues are currently focusing oncharacterizing regulators or growth factors that target [beta] cells themselves.Our lab identified CCN5 as a matricellular protein that displays growth promoting effectsin pancreatic [beta] cells. We characterized CCN5 in whole genome cDNA microarray analysis of IGFIoverexpressing islets. CCN5 was among the genes that were significantly upregulated in the isletsof these mice. Furthermore, overexpression of CCN5 in MIN6 insulinoma cells enhanced theproliferation and survival of these cells. Collectively, these results raised our interest in CCN5’sphysiological effects in pancreatic [beta] cells.For my PhD project, I hypothesize that CCN5/WISP2 is a growth factor that stimulatesproliferation, survival and function of pancreatic [beta] cells through the binding to a high-affinityreceptor and activation of downstream targets. Thereby, I investigated the physiological effects ofCCN5 in pancreatic [beta] cells using recombinant human CCN5 (rh-CCN5) insulinoma cells INS832/13, and primary mouse islets.We found that rh-CCN5 stimulated the proliferation of INS 832/13 and mouse islets via apathway involving FAK/ERK activation and ultimately leading to the stimulation of cell cycle regulators CDK4 and Cyclin D1, respectively. Rh-CCN5 also protected INS 832/13 and mouseislets from lipotoxicity, glucolipotoxicity and streptozotocin (STZ) induced-cell death. Theexpression of key genes associated with [beta] cells identity and function was also enhanced uponCCN5 addition in culture (Chapter II). We then showed a biphasic regulation of insulin secretionby CCN5 that seems to be dependent on the ER stress/UPR activity in these cells (Chapter III).Using ligand receptor capture technology, we identified neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunitalpha-3 (Chrna3) as a potential receptor for CCN5 on the surface of insulinoma MIN6 cells(Chapter IV). Finally, using microarray gene expression profiling, we identified novel CCN5targets in primary islets; those are involved in GPCR signaling, wound healing, and immuneresponse (Chapter IV).These studies have confirmed the growth promoting properties of CCN5 in pancreatic [beta]cells and characterized the mechanism by which CCN5 exerts such effects. Overall CCN5represents a potential candidate that could enhance [beta] cells physiology in vitro and additionalstudies would be essential to validate its functions in vivo"--

Encapsulation Of Pancreatic Beta Cells

Encapsulation of Pancreatic Beta Cells PDF
Author: Nikravesh Niusha
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 64.26 MB
Format: PDF
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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Book Description: